Some of the most confusing words for non-native speakers, and sometimes for native speakers as well, are the words "yeah" and those similar to it. There are at least four other words with similar spelling that are used commonly in English: "yah," "ya," "yay," and "yea." The previous term and "yah" are quite similar in usage, pronunciation, and meaning, expressing an affirmative. People typically use "ya" as a slang version of "you," "yay" as an expression of happiness, and "yea" as an affirmative vote or for more archaic purposes.
Yeah and Yah
"Yeah" is the most common of these words, and seems to have originated sometime around the early 20th century, likely in the US. It is an adverb, and speakers often use it simply to mean "yes." People can use the term as a one-word answer to yes-or-no questions, such as "Do you want to go to the park on Saturday?", to which someone could simply reply "Yeah." This word likely derived from either the word "yes" or the word "yea."
Many people use "yah" as a more modern, slang spelling of the word "yeah". People often use it in instant messaging or texting, and it is likely just a shortening of the slightly longer word and indicates agreement in much the same way. The pronunciation can be the same, or it may be pronounced more like "yaw." An older use of the word "yah" was as an interjection that usually showed some sort of negative feeling about something said, often insulting it, or sometimes demonstrating impatience.
The word "ya" can be used as an even further shortening of "yeah," typically in texting or online communications. More often, however, it is used as a synonym for "you," with a dialect pronunciation. A speaker might use it in a sentence such as, "How are ya today?" In this sense, the word is pronounced as "yuh," rhyming with "duh." One archaic usage of "ya" was as a synonym for the word "yea," but this is seen only in very old English writing.
The word "yay" is usually used as an interjection and exclamation to show joy. A person might say something like, "Yay! My new kitten finally arrived!" The word is likely derived from "yea," meaning simply "yes," but shifted spelling over time, perhaps to indicate excitement. "Yay" has the same pronunciation as "yea" and rhymes with "hay." It can also be used as a placeholder to denote physically representing something, usually height, in sentences such as, "The plants were about yay high."
The word "yea" is the oldest of the group, and it is likely that "yeah," "ya," and "yay" all derive from it. "Yea" goes back more than a thousand years, from the Old English "gea" by way of Middle English "ye." It has a number of meanings, but all are roughly affirmations, much as "yeah" is.
"Yea" can be used as a synonym for "indeed," as in the sentence, "Yea, it did come to pass." It can mean something like "not just this, but also this," as in the sentence "a large, yea, a titanic wave came crashing in." Someone can also use it simply to mean "yes," as in the sentence "Yea, I will do it." In modern usage, however, speakers typically use it only in voting, where it indicates an affirmative vote, in contrast to "nay." The word "yea" has the same pronunciation as "yay," rhyming with the word "may."
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Nonsense. "Jah" typically spelled "Ja" is German for "Yes", Swedish for "yes", Danish for "yes", and Norwegian for "yes". It is pronounced as "yah". Most of the northern U.S. citizens west of New York and east of the western mountain states have Teutonic or Scandinavian ancestors, so "Ja" is their "Yes". As to the spellings of "yah" and "yay", these are just uneducated spellings, not important.
Is it just me, or in recent years, do US movies and TV shows try to push "ya"? Many shows that have lots of seasons and are on air for years have started using "ya" instead of "yes" very noticeably in the last year or so. It is as if the movie industry is trying to push it artificially, or at least that's my observation as a non-native English speaker.
Hearing words and typing/reading words have some differences. For clarity I type the word "yeay" (not yay or yea) because you can hear the "y" at the end of the word .
When I see "Ya" or "yah" my brain hears Arnold Schwarzenegger, so I write "yeah". Also, to save two letters (keystrokes) in texting is lazy and dumbing down the language, but that horse has left the barn, eh?
@anon153688; "Yeah" is an affirmative adverb, much like "certainly" "indeed" and "yes" - which can function as an adverb as well as an interjection. Hope that helps clear it up.
Per the dictionary there is no shortcut for Hooray, but yay does does fit the pronunciation of Yippee-ki-yay! Yeah, or yea is short for yes. Yay it says means size, as in yay big. And yah is a derisive term, like, "Yah, yah sure!" Yeah, now I know how to text yay!
@LittleMan: "Yeah" still means "yes," as in "Oh yeah! I'm awesome!" = "Oh yes! I'm awesome" or, as your other examples "Oh, yes (that's right). I remember that" or "Oh yes (correct). You're that horrible guy."
what about 'yep'?
Prior to the Norman invasion, ya was used. When the Norman overlords became masters of small settlements, they would be addressed to as Sire. Hence it became common to say yasire. Eventually this was shortened over the years to yes. It is also where the word "sir" originates from.
I would like to know how "yeah" is considered an adverb if it means, "yes." The word "yes" is considered an interjection. Adverbs must modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Can someone explain to me how "yeah" can modify one of these?
Yay! So next time sometime someone tries to be the grammar/manners-police and tells me that I should say yes instead of yeah, I'll happily point out that 'yeah' is, in fact, a real word.
I'd agree with this article 100 percent. It's very comprehensive, but without having done any research on it, I'd also add that "yay!" maybe an abbreviation of "hooray!"
@anon24797 -- I'm not sure how it started, but I know that my relatives from North Carolina use it all the time.
That's one of those weird ones that really strikes you the first time you hear it, but it really tends to get into your psyche -- I catch myself saying it every once in a while now too.
You forgot "Oh yeah" That one has so many different meanings of its own, you could write a whole different article about it.
I mean, it can be a positive, like "Oh yeah! I'm awesome!" or it can be a neutral, as in "Oh, yeah. I remember that".
It can even be negative, when you are reminded of something bad: "Oh yeah. I you're that horrible guy."
I'm glad that you guys are writing articles like this about common words though -- it keeps the site from being too academic.
Keep up the good work!
where does the placeholder definition of yay come from, who started it and how? Just wondering. (the yay high one)